Treatment Brief

Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions such as osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, and enthesopathy affect 1 in 4 adults, resulting in pain, loss of function and reduced quality of life. The secondary co-morbidities associated with these conditions include diabetes, obesity, and depression. With 1/3rd of all work absences attributable to MSK conditions, the direct and indirect costs are huge, estimated to be 5.76% of the national gross domestic product (GDP) in the USA(1). Therapy for these conditions traditionally starts conservatively in the form of analgesia, physiotherapy, weight-loss programmes, steroid injections, and orthotics. For patients with severe disease, and or who are resistant to conservative treatments, surgery may be an option. Unfortunately, many patients fail conservative therapies, and are not suitable surgical candidates. Over the last decade, MSK embolotherapy has emerged as a safe, and potentially efficacious treatment option for these patients.




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  • Injections with anesthetic or anti-inflammatory
  • medications in or around the painful sites.
  • Exercise that includes muscle strengthening and stretching.
  • Physical or occupational therapy.
  • Acupuncture or acupressure.
  • Relaxation/biofeedback techniques.
The pain can range from mild to severe enough to interfere with your day-to-day life. It may start suddenly and be short-lived, which is called acute pain. Pain that lasts for more than 3 to 6 months is called chronic pain.
We palpate the affected part for swelling, tenderness and heat and note the muscle texture and also identify tense muscles and trigger points. We test the nerves by assessing the tendon reflexes, and we perform sensation testing and isometric strength testing, which checks out the neurological status.